Glossary

AmenorrhoeaThe absence of the menstruation in a woman of reproductive age. Primary amenorrhoea – the initial absence of the menstruation; secondary amenorrhoea – the absence of the menstruation at least for the last six month.
AndrogenA male sex hormone.
AneuploidyAbnormal numbers of specific chromosomes or chromosome sets exist within the nucleus.
Antenatal (prenatal)Occurring, existing, or performed before birth, during pregnancy.
Artificial insemination (AI)Placing sperm into the vagina or uterus using artificial means rather than by natural copulation. Nowadays, intrauterine insemination is only used.
Assisted hatchingThe opening of the embryo’s covering using, for example, a laser aimed at facilitating implantation of the embryo.
AsthenozoospermiaReduced sperm motility.
AutosomeA non-sex chromosome. In humans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes.
AzoospermiaThe medical condition of a man not having any measurable level of spermatozoa in his semen. Azoospermia has two forms: abstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia.
Chromosomal aberration1)General name of any mutation – deletions, translocations, inversions, duplications.
2) Genomic mutations (aneuploidies, trisomies, etc.).
ChromosomeA threadlike structure in the cell nucleus consisting of DNA and special proteins and providing hereditary materials. Chromosomes contain all or most of the genes of the organism.
CryopreservationFrom Greek: kryo = cooled, frozen. The cryopreservation is used to preserve the embryos that remain after embryo transfer, which can then be used for further attempts. Also, spermatozoa can be cryopreserved.
Deletion1) A type of chromosomal aberration in which part of a chromosome is missing.
2) A type of genetic aberration in which a DNA molecule loses its part.
DownregulationInduced by medicines decrease in endogenous output of hormones.
Ectopic pregnancyA pathological pregnancy, in which an embryo implants in any tissue other than the uterine wall.
EmbryoThe developing fertilized oocyte from the time of implantation to the end of the eighth week after conception. Since the 13the week of pregnancy the embryo becomes a fetus.
Embryo transferPlacing a dividing fertilized oocyte (embryo) into the uterus with the intent to establish pregnancy.
EndometriosisA frequent cause of the infertility. A common medical condition where the tissue lining the uterus (endometrium) is found outside the uterus causing scar formation.
EndometriumThe abundantly supplied with blood tissue lining the inner surface of the uterus that gets renewed evey month. An embryo implants in endometrium.
EstrogensFrom Latin: östrus = readiness to coupling, gen = to cause. Estrogens – female sex hormones produced in the ovaries and controlling the growth of the endometrium.
Fallopian tubesTwo very fine funnel-shaped tubes that guide spermatozoa to the oocyte and the fertilized oocyte – to the uterus.
FertilityThe quality or state of being fertile.
FertilizationThe interaction of gametes resulting in the fusion of male and female genetic material.
FollicleA vesicle that contains a developing egg surrounded by a covering of cells. Follicles mature in the ovaries.
Follicular puncturePiercing a follicle with a very fine needle to obtain an oocyte.
FSHFollicle stimulating hormone. A hormone produced by the hypophysis and stimulating the growth of immature follicles to maturation.
GametesMale and female sex cells (ovum and spermatozoon).
GeneA functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits. A trait can be controlled by several genes.
GenomChromosome set of a cell, that contains all the hereditary information
GestagenFemale hormone that supports pregnancy
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)A term composed of two roots of English and Greek origin: gonos = reproduction, trop = influence on, releasing = setting free. A hormone responsible for release of FSH and LH.
GnRH agonistA medicine initially causing increase in FSH and LH secretion, then however it induces a profound hypogonodal effect achieved through downregulation. Used to avoid premature ovulation.
GnRH AntagonistMedicaton, that supresses own production of FSH and LH. Used to avoid premature ovulation.
HormonesCarriers of information between different organs in the body.
Human chorionic human gonadotropin (hCG)From Latin: chorion = fetal integument, gonad = gonads, trop = to affect. A hormone produced in pregnancy by an embryo, that may be tested in blood or urine by a pregnancy test. Medications containing hCG are medically used for ovulation timing.
Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)From Latin: Menopausa = climax, gonad = sex gland hMG is produced from a sterile preparation of placental glucoprotein urine of post-menopausal women. hMG is used to stimulate ovaries.
HypophysisThe main endocrine gland, controlling functioning of other endocrine glands (gonads, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, etc.); sits in the small, bony cavity at the base of the brain.
ImplantationGrowing of the embryo into the endometrium.
In-vitro-Fertilisation (IVF)From Latin: in vitro = in a test glass, fertilisation = fertilization. IVF means fertilization outside the body – extracorporal fertilization.
InfertilityIf a regular sexual life doesn’t result in conceiving a child within a year, physicians call this infertility. However, this state isn’t unchangeable or unrecoverable.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)The term is composed of words with roots of Latin origin: intra =in, inside, cytoplasma = content of a cell, spermium = spermatozoon. An in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an oocyte using a finer microneedle.
KaryotypeThe set of chromosomes specific to this particular organism. Normal human karyotype 46, XX for women and 46, XY for men.
Lutein phaseThe time when yellow body (corpus luteum) produce progesterone – the second half of menstrual cycle. The lutein phase requires to be supported when there is deficiency in endogenous progesterone.
MutationChange in hereditary material (DNA, gene, chromosome, genome).
MyomaA benign tumor consisting of muscle tissue and normally located in the uterus. Myoms may cause infertility or habitual miscarrying of pregnancy.
Non-obstructive azoospermiaDisorder in sperm production (spermatogenesis).
Obstructive azoospermiaDisorder in hich spermaducts are occluded and sperm can’t be mixed with the rest of the ejaculatory fluid. There are no problems with spermatogenesis or they may be secondary.
OligospermiaReduced sperm count in ejaculate.
OocyteA female sex cell (egg or ovum).
OvariesCoupled female sex organs of oval shape in which the fertilized oocyte matures. Ovaries produce estrogens and progestagens (gestatio = pregnancy, gen = to cause).
OvulationThe discharge of a mature ovum from the ovary through a fallopian tube.
PlacentaA temporary organ joining the mother and fetus, the placenta transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus, and permits the release of carbon dioxide and waste products from the fetus. After the baby is delivered the placenta detaches from the uterus.
Polycystic ovaries (Polycystic ovary syndrome – PCOS)From Greek: kytis = bladder and poly = multiple. Ovaries with many small cysts.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)Genetic test for embryos before embryo transfer, helping to exclude chromosome abnormalities and genetic diseases
Prenatal diagnosticMedical tests of the fetus before delivery (f. e. ultrasound)
ProgesteroneFrom Latin: pro = for, gestatio = pregnancy. Progesterone is produced by the yellow body; it prepares the endometrium to implantation of the embryo and supports pregnancy.
Prolactin(from Latin: lactis = milk) A hormone synthesized in the hypophysis and stimulating the mammary glands to produce milk.
Prostate (prostate gland)A gland as large as a chestnut located under the ladder in males. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline viscid fluid which is a major constituent of the ejaculatory fluid providing spermatozoa motility.
RubellaAn infectious disease caused by the Rubella virus. If a pregnant woman has the disease, this may cause heavy abnormalities in embryo development.
Single gene disorderA disease caused by abnormality in one gene.
SpermaSeminal plasma containing sperm cells
SterilizationA vasectomy in males or tubal ligation in females leaving them unable to procreate. Pregnancy is possible ith help of IVF treatment.
TeratospermiaThe sperm contains too many spermatozooa of abnoemal morphology.
TESE / MESAIf there is no sperm in ejaculate, spermatozoa can be obtained directly from testicles (TESE = testicular spermextraction) or epididymises (MESA = microsurgical epididymal spermaspiration).
Thyrotrophic hormone (TSH)A hormone produced by the hypophysis that stimulates the function of the thyroid gland (glandula thyreoidea).
TranslocationThe interchange of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
Trosomy There are 3 instead of 2 chromosomes in a cell.
UterusAn organ of the female for containing and nourishing the fetus prior to birth. The uterus consists of the cervix, uterine body and fundus. There a mouth of the uterus that leads to the uterine cavity. The both of fallopian tubes run into the uterus.
Yellow body (corpus luteum)A temporary endocrine structure developing from an ovarian follicle and getting yellow after ovulation. Hence the name – yellow body.
ZygoteA fertilized oocyte after pronuklea from the oocyte and a spem merge together and before the first division.